The dissolution of the Soviet Union and the establishment of the Russian Federation have obviously had a profound impact on the country. Since 1991, every event in Russia has served as an illustration of the leadership’s attempt to transform the old order into a new order. For the most part, the leadership and people of the Russian Federation are grappling with two central features of the democratization process. One is the establishment of a market economy, which is having a striking impact on all people throughout the country. The other key feature is recognition of the importance of government by rule of law. It is this feature that is having such a profound impact on the country’s criminal justice system.